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Research and innovation

Data on open collaboration

Figures on availability of scientific APIs, open code policies, citizen science projects as well as case studies.

What is open collaboration?

Open scientific collaboration refers to the forms of collaboration in the course of the scientific process that do not fit under open data and open publications.

It includes different type of outputs such as open code, open hardware, the use of collaborative platforms between scientists and the "citizen-science" phenomenon.

The chosen indicators cover the availability of scientific Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), journals' policies on open code, and number of citizen science projects.

New indicators and updated data will be added over time. 

You can download the chart and its data through the dedicated menu within each chart (top right of the image). 

For more information, see the methodology report.

Availability of scientific APIs

This indicator shows the number of Application Programming Interfaces in the science category of the largest API repository ProgrammableWeb.

Journals' policies with regard to open code

The indicator shows the different policies of journals with regard to open code, based on Stodden, 2013.

Open hardware

This indicator shows the number of open hardware project in the Open Hardware Repository.

Citizens' science projects

This indicator shows the number of citizens science projects in the SciStarter repository and in the Zooniverse repository.

Additional indicators

There are other indicators used to monitor scientific open collaboration, such as:

Case studies

You can here find a set of detailed case studies available for download, that will be updated in the course of the study.

Open Hardware Licences: parallels and contrasts

An overview of the implications of open hardware licensing through the analysis of the four most relevant licences in current use.


An overview on the drivers, the barriers, and the impact of (using) ORCID, a registry that provides unique identifiers for anyone who contributes to research, scholarship, and innovation.

As Predicted: preventing p-hacking

An overview of an online platform for researchers to post their research designs before the studies are conducted for greater transparency both within their scientific audience, as well as the general public at large.

Citizen Science in the Surveillance and Monitoring of Mosquito-Borne Diseases

A case study focusing on the use of citizen science methods in the surveillance and monitoring of mosquitos in the Global Mosquito Alert project, with a particular overview on the Spanish Mosquito Alert project.

Electronic Laboratory Notebooks (ELNs) as Key Enablers of Open Science

Electronic Laboratory Notebooks (ELNs) are multi-functional data managers that, when properly used, can help to promote the implementation of the FAIR data principles for scientific data management and stewardship and open science that aim to make scientific data Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Re-usable.

Research Data Alliance

An international grassroots organisation that promotes international collaboration and global sharing mechanisms to remove social and technical barriers to research data sharing and reuse.


Mendeley is one of the most popular social reference management tools that helps in organising one’s research, makes it possible to collaborate online with others, and helps in discovering the latest research.


REANA is a reusable and reproducible research data analysis platform enabling users to re-use and reinterpret preserved data analysis years after the original publication, facilitating reproducibility of scientific results.

Recongnising the Importance of Software in Research - Research Software Engineers (RSEs), a UK Example

An initiative being carried out in the UK (and beyond) to promote and recognise the role of Research Software Engineers (RSEs) in research. RSE is a collective term created to bring together those software experts with an understanding of both research and software engineering.

White Rabbit

An example on how CERN managed to transform the open source software model to capital-intensive innovations, motivating self-interested actors to freely reveal innovations developed with private resources without compensation guarantees.

Faculty of 1000

An open science publishing platform that transform the way science is communicated.

The Netherlands’ Plan on Open Science

Three key ambitions for open science: 100% open access to publications, research data made optimally suitable for reuse, and evaluation and valuation systems to recognize and reward researchers.

Polymath Project

A collaborative website trying to find solutions to unsolved problems in combinatorial mathematics.