European societies, national governments and institutions of the European Union are currently facing an important challenge. Terrorist attacks hit France, Denmark and Belgium between 2014 and 2016, aÿer several other deadly terrorist attacks in the United Kingdom, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands and France in previous years. This specific terrorist phenomenon is new. Europeans need to understand
what has happened and to be better prepared for anticipating, preventing and combating terrorism. The quality of the diagnosis is key to the efficiency of adequate policies. This Review thus aims to take stock of the available scientific knowledge on this new form of terrorism and suggest briefly what more should be done to increase this knowledge. Chapter 1 of the Review presents an overview of the approach that has dominated research over the last ten years: namely the notion of “radicalisation”. It also analyses the most important research projects funded by the EU under Framework Programme 7 (FP7) in this area in order to assess their contributions to the current inclusion and security challenges in Europe. Chapter 2 outlines why and how research lines could be broadened in order to understand the current terrorist phenomenon of jihadism. It also presents the most promising research trends. A brief Conclusion sums up the main findings of the report and presents a series of recommendations in order to steer and support lines of research to better equip the EU with inclusion and security policies to address contemporary terrorism.