This paper offers a presentation of a broader conceptual model benefitting policies for transformative innovation and grand challenges that goes beyond the linear model and innovation system approaches. The new role for research and innovation is to support socio-economic transformations, but needs to be complemented with other policies in order to have a stronger impact. After introducing the socio-technical transitions and potential barriers for the uptake of these niche innovations, the last analytical section depicts a selection of examples where these transformations have taken place, in both energy and mobility. The paper closes with an extensive overview of relevant and well-structured policy conclusions.
By Frank W. Geels (University of Manchester)